Human rights are the rights to which an individual has a just a
Right as a human being. Men, woman and children collectively and
Individually have these by virtue of their birth of human being. For the
Sake of convenice, human rights have been put into two categories,
Natural rights as right to live and exist and sustain life with food
,shelter, freedom of thought and conscience and faith are same other
Fundamental natural rights. Rights to work , freedom and aebitary arrest
And dentention, right to a fair trial, equally before law,the rights to a
Nationality, freedom of association and peaseful assembly, to have a
Adequate standard of living, freedom from expoliation and discrimination ,
Right to participate in election, etc important civil rights.
The UN general assembly adopted universal Declaration of a
Human rights in 1948. The declaration recognized the inherent dignity
And equal of inalience rights of all members of the human family, This
Charter of human rights was mostly drafted by Rene Cassion Nobal
Peace Prize winner of 1968. The charter urged the right to Political
Economical social and cultural self-determination; the right to a
Peace;the right to live in a good environment ; and the right to share
In the natural resource. It pledged the rights of life, liberty and a
Security of a person –the basic of human rights. Althought these rights
Are not legally binding but they have been universally recognized and were Later on ratified by a couple of international conventions.
Then there political rights which entitle a peraon to contest an election and
To vote Freely, without any fear for a candidate of the his or her choice.
Human rights and their implementation, practice and democratic
Society.In a democrscy people enjoy the maximum number of human
Rights have their corresponding human duties, They are to of the same
Coins rides. Liberty never means licences. Human rights are the
Pre-suppose a rule of law where all the citizens follows a code of conduct
And behaviour for the good of all irrespective of caste, creed , religion
Sex, social status,
Regions,etc. It is the sence of duty, tolerance,mutual participation
That leads meaning and sence to the rights. Rights have their existence
On the principles pf live and live.For example, my right to speech
And expression involves my duty to all other to enjoy to speech and expression
Involves my duty to all others to enjoy the same freedom of speech and
Expression. Human rights and human duties duties for other and vice-versa.
A perfect balance should be always maintained between the two.
Whenever there is an imbalance, there is violation of human rights leading
To disturbance and chaos. Rights cannot surive without their corresponding
Obligations and duties.
Violationn and denial of human rights are very common in the
Totalitarian and deposits states.In theocratic states is there is much of
Persecution in the name of religion and the minorities and woman are
Suffer the most as we see in the many fundamentalist muslim coutries.
The,woman , children and weaker section of the society are victims
Of these transgression and violation.
The UN commission on Human rights is manily concered in the
Protecting and promoting human rights and freedom of the world.
In its various sessions held from time to time in Geneva,it adopts
Various measures to encourage worldwide observation of these basic
Human rights and freedom.It calls on its membership to give the
Information regarding measures complited with the universal Declaration
Of Human Rights whenever these is a complaint of violation of these
Then there are many voluntary human rights organization throughout
The length and breadth of the world but in most of the cases, they are
Become a mere instrument of cheap publicity, propaganda personl
Gains, popularity etc. in the hands of vested interests. For example
In the India itself the kashmiri pandits etc. have been subject to
Terrosim, loot, rape,killings and displacement for many years but
No human rights orgnisation has come forward to give voice to their suffering
Or to protect their human righs.Similiarly, in the western countries there
Prevail all sorts of discriminations and violation of human rights. In the
U.S.churches of the black are being burnt and they are persecuted
In the Pakistan and Afghanistan, woman are being denied there are
Basic rights are freedom.They are flogged and stoned to death to the
Publicly without any fair judicial trial on false and fabricated charges.
They cannot marry men of their choice or seek an emoployment.
In Cambodia under the dictatorship of Pol Pot of Khmer Rouge,
Millions of people were of massacaerd systematically and nothing
Was done to cheak it or punish the men responsible for this mass
People and political parties talk of human rights but in the a
Practice there are flagrant violation of them. Deaths in the policy
Custody and fake encounters of the such violation. The police often take
The law in their own hands and kill the so-called criminals insted
Of subjecting them to due process of law. No investigation are held
As to whether the deceased had commited any offence. In the
Capital city of delhi the police shot dead two innocent businessman
And seriously woundedtheir compansion and then placed a revolever
Etc. in their car to prove it an encounter. The violation of human rights by the police,the very protedtors of law and order, arer too numerous to count.
They harass,maltreat,humitiate,tryranniize and lacerate people in the
Name of interrogation and investigation.
In china, a communist state, the denial and transgression of human rights
Are too many and too frequent. It is estimated that in the year 1995-96
Itself 3,500 people were executed under the so-called strike-hard and
Anti-crime campaign,which is being continued viogorously. In Tabit
The followers of Dalali Lama are being presecuted for many years
Killed the 10,000 people,mostly stundents ,were shot dead in the
Tianamen Squre,outside the great Hall of the people in Bejing beacaues
They staged a demonstration for their democrastic rights and freedom .
These example of flagrant violation of human rights is just the a
Proverbial tip of the iceberg.The actual violation of human rights
Is on far more vast scale throughout the world. Woman,children
Weaker section of the socities,monitries and other ethnic groups
Are the common victims of such violation.
Till recently South Africa.apaetheid was being practiced
The native Africans were denied their just and legitimate human
Rights. Then there are other forms the apartheid terrisom and
Military dirtatorship and the masses are being their basic democratic
Rights.Sex-aparthied is most rampant. Woman are subject to various
Kinds of abused and explioition. Children too are being abused and
Exploited. They are forced to work hard in very dangerous situation
Sexcuall y they are assumed and exploited,sold and bounded for
Labour. Their limbs are sometimes amputated to make them earn for
The mafias as beggers.
Thus,the present state of affairs in respect of human rights is
Disappointing. Their denial, curtailment and violation have furthrer
Degraded the quality of human life.Human rights may be reshaped
And redefined to same extent according to the political needs but
They should not be distored out of shape. Such tendencious are a
Totalitarian, in human and savage and be resistred. The awerness
Of the sancity of human rights and basic freedom should be speard
To more and more people of the world. They should be united into very
Effectieve social and political groups to preserve their rights and a
In case of transgression and violation of human rights, the individual
Should be ompensated suitably and it should be ensured that these
Are not repeated.
Violation of human rights gives rise to various other evils
Such as terrorism,extremism, alienation,Frustration, separatism,etc.
In many cases,the government controlled by self-seeking,over ambitions
And narrow-minded people use repressive,unconstitutional and savages
Means and spread violence and terror to command the obedience from
The masses. But state terrorism,violence,transgression of peoples a
Rights are very dangerous strategy there has been often boomeranges.
In the background of all world revolation there has been this steategy.
Whenever there has been systematic and wisdespered state persection
And violation of human rights there broke out rebellions and revolation
And history respect itself.
Half the world is that of woman and yet the violence against them
May be the most pervasive and least recognisd human rights abuse in
The in world. Gender violence,sexual harassment ,discrimination, denial
Of economic,sexual and reproductive rights etc.are in practice are a
Unlimited.The remody lies in widespred legal reforms, better an a
Enforecement of exiting laws new preceduers to dicoument violation
Education about human rights and cloes alliance between organization
Concerned with their rights. According to U.N.report the cases of rape
Are on the rise and in courts,rape victims are often stigmatized and a
Their testimony and intergrity impugned.
Child prostition, dowry-deaths and dowry-related crimes are a
Other areas of concern. In India , thousands of woman die because of
Dowry-realted crims.Girls-children are often held in bondage in brothels
The marked preference for boys over girls,sex selative abortions etc .
Are also mattersof much concern and should be effectively tackled.
These massive violations of human rights, taking place across the world
Are a great stain on the face of entireh umananiy.
Environment is a comprehence and collective term that a
Describes the conditions,surrounding etc. of the organism. It includes
Lamd, water, air, temperature,light etc. all the conditions that help
Development and growth of the life. Life is depend upon this environment
Life presupposes this environment. Life is there on the earth because
Of its peculler climate,weather,geography,geology and all the natural
Resources that nature has bestowed upon it. All these form an integral
Part of environment.
There has been a certain balance between these various elements. And
Without this balance life and existence would have been impossible.
The earth is only known plant.It is the only plant where there
Is life. It’s life-supporting environment makes it unique. In the absenc
Of this environment the earth would have been as sterile,dead and a
Lifeless as the rest of the plants are in our solar system. On other are
Planets there is no environment, no atmosphere and therefore, no life
At all . After all, its is the earth’s biosphere that supportsand sustains
Life on it.
The earth’s atmosphere which encircles the earth protects it
Like a skin-conver which chiefly consists of nitrogen and life-giving
Oxygen other gasses found in minor ratio are argon, carbon dioxide
Hydrogen, neon, helium,krypoton etc. Water vapour is also there in
the range of 0.2 per cent 0.4 per cent. Without water vapour in the
atmosphere there would be no weather on our plant. The earth’s are
atmosphere extends upto about 200 km. from its surface. It is this a
atmosphere that moderates and regulates temperatures,prevents excess
of heating that would destroy life on the earth. This layer is called a
troposphere which extents upto 7 to 9 miles in the height. It contains
about 2-3 of the the mass of the earth’s atmosphere. It is warmed up by
the sun’s heat which is bounded back from the earth’s surface .In the
troposphere the temperature decreases by the about 6 C for every km.
rise in altitude upto the region of weather and clouds. Above troposphere
in another layer called stratosphere. It is characterized by the another are
layer called stratosphere. It is characterized by fairly constant the an a
temperatures and ozone concentration. In the it , temperature the
increases with height. It is also free from the violation of the weather
changes which occur below in the troposphere.
The belt of the ozone in stratosphere absorbs most of the sun’s
Dangerous ultraviolet rays. The layer of the ozone lies between altitudes
12 and 50 km.
The ozone layer is the self-generating, that is the ozone concentration in
the stratosphere remains more or less constant over a period of the tine .
It works as an effective shield to protect the earth’s surface from the harmful
Effects of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Ozone is a bluish gas with an a
Penetrating smell. It is one of the 2 allotropes of oxygen. Ozone is oxygen
With 3 rather then 2 atoms and therefore, can be trioxygen O3. The existence
Of several forms of an element in the same, state but with different physical
Rather then chemical properties, are called allotrops. Ozone decomposes to
Oxygen on warming.
Recently a gaping hole has been observed in the ozone layer over the
Antarctica and it has set the alarm bells ringing. This hole is said to be a
Be getting bigger day to day resulting in cancer-casuing ultra-violet rave of
The sun reaching the earth more than more. This depletion of the ozone
Layer is manily caused by realease of chlorine atoks in abundance from
Man-made chemicals. The atoms of chlorine react with the molecules of ozone
And the 3 atoms of ozone breaks down and oxygen is realsed. This is a
Decomposition of ozone into oxygen because of the presence of the
Chlorofluorocarbons [CFCS] is a very danger phenomenon. This has been
Occurring for a long time, was not known till 1973.
Above stratosphere lies mesosphere stretching between 50 and 80
Km. it is marked by a fall in temperature from 10 C at 50 km to -80 C.
Beyond this lies ionosphere, between 80 and 500 km. lonosphere are
Containsgas molecules that are ionized, or electrically charged by cosmic or solar rays. There are violent disturbance in ionosphere which result in bright a
Lights, called aurorae. Here the temperatures rise steadily with altitude from
About -80 C at 80 km. to 220 C at 400 km. Then there is finally the an
Outermost zone, called exosphere which begins at about 500 km. above the
Surface of the earth and ends about 700 km.above the earth. It is so an the
Extremely rarefined that its atoms seldom collide with one another. And the
Ccnsisting manily of hydrogen and helium the exosphere merges into a
Besides ozone layer and temperature, the biosphere, the part of the
Earth and its atmosphere inhabited by living things, is another important
Indicater of our environment. These key indicaters also include the a
Forest-cover, the rain- pattern, soil condition, flora and fauna, that is a
Biodiversity. Thus, thousands and thousands of specious of plants, tress
Vegetation and animals are an integral part of our environment. The range
Of biodiversity is very vast which includes the world’s all ecosystem.
In this all-comprehensive environment and atmosphere, all things , living
And non-living are inter-connected and interdependent. Any adverse effect on
One thing is bound to influence the rest of the things adversely. This indicates
The oneness of the life and existence. Therefore, protection of the environment
In its various forms of manifestation, wheather it is the water,air,soli,forests
Wildlife, seas, rivers or animals, is of vitual significance. The questions of
Environment conservation and protection has assumed far greater of various
Urgency and significance now then ever before. Our very existence and a
Survival is closely linked with the proper and healthy balance in the an a
Environment our natural resources are nature’s great gifts to us, but they are
Not endless and should be used wisely and not exploited foolisey. The a
Ruthless destruction of environment or ‘ecoside ‘ is nothing short of the
Genocide and self-annihiliation. In the ultimate analysis it is the fine and delicate
Balance between various constituents of the environment that makes the earth
A living and unique plant.
Man is inseparable part of the earth’s biosphere and ecosystem it is his
Duty to maintain and preserve the sancity of the earth’s ecosystem and not to
Spoil and destroy it is any way. There cannot be a greater sin and immoral
Act than to help inn thre degradation of the enviernment. Our health, working-m habit, behaviouur, way of life etc .
Are very closely linked with the envinonment. The climate is an a
Intergral part of the enivernment. The varid climatic conditions legiur the
Plant earth have been responsible for the all variety, beauty, and fascination
That mankind possesses in the respect of its cultures, religions , foods,
Festivals and social customs.
There are marked socio-cultural divercity among various races, countries
Ethnic groups because of different geographical and climatic conditions
Conservation of the earth’s enivernment means thec protection and the
Growth of life, the very evolution of mankind. The pollution and depletuion
Of the atmosphere is nothing short of suicide. The constituents of the
Environment, are the very ingredients of our life should be kept live
Vibrant, rich and healthy.
The direct and close co-realation between environment conditions
And our psychological activites is well established. Changes in atmosphere
And climatc conditions affect our behavioural pattern in spite of our
Wonderful adaptability and marevellous scientic and technological advance-
Ments. There should be no confict between our so called industrial or
Development and environment conditions. In no way should we affect the
Delicate balance between its various elements like soil,forest,water,resources
Wildlife , bio-divercity and biomass. There cannot be any development and progress in the true sence of the term, by creating an imbalance in nature .
Growth is not possible at the cost of harmony,beauty and balance. Our
Many problems are in direct realation and proporation to the imbalance created
By us in environment. Our over-indulgence in exploiation of the boons of
Nature is bound to create doom and disaster for us and more so for the same
Generations to come. A proper balance is imperative between our the
Environment and industrial growth and development.
Nature is something beyond economic valuation, something to be hheld in love,affection ,awe and fear. The eco-imperialism of the today should and if so
The environmentalists.of the world regardless of North or south think.There
Should not be any scope to draw a line between the so-called capitalists and
Socialists so as to define nature. After all formeres socialist part of
The ecological damage caused in the former socialist part of the world
No less than what capitalism wrought elsewherer.
India which rmbraced socialism after Independence, has now
Become a votary of free market and ‘market environmentalism’ . Staunch
Ggreens romanticise environment, no offence in itself but an act that in the
Face of ecological dynamic which involves constant exchange of energy
And matter between the living and non-living components of the biosphere.
Therefore, there is no sin in harnessing nature without deprediation for man’s
Good.In fact, the day not far-off when social and economic organization
Will be governed substantially by green philosophy that values minimal use
Of energy and resources, recycling and zero waste. It is not that wants and
Needs would not multiply but they would be met with less and lessoueces is energy
Use and little waste physical phenomenon like global warming that threaten earth’s
Life supporting system are influencing current thinking on resource use in
A good measure.
Government has been taking initiatives but not much of it was achieved.
Joint foreast management [JFM, 1990], the Drough-prone Areas programme in
Rainfed areas NWDPRA 1989 are even today a crucial subject matter for
Re-evalrution of the efforts. The involvement of rural woman in these
Environmental venturer aises many questions. Afundamental point of view is that
Basuc issues of survival, sustenance and gender justice cannot remain isolated
From resource convervation programmes, and community-based natural are
Resources programmes. We find that the environment vs development debate
In the India is still rooted in mutul antagonism. And the debate has remind
Much the same in the last two decades while the rest of the world has moved
Forward to explore to how science and technology could play a great role
In sustainable development. So why not we in India execute meaningfully
To understand the environment.
The other side of the picture is ironical that is; environment provides
A wide range of career opportunity, primarily because of its degradation
Across the globe. Industrial explosion and booming in industrial activity
Has led to an unprecedented increase in the level of industrial effluents and
Waste. These all have yhreatened man’s natural surroundings seriously.
Question is ; why the environment has become indispensable to manufacturing sector.
The path for service to our environment is tremendous. Enivernment
Enginner environment planner environment an, envirionment are
Educationist and researcher, environment lawyers and journalist-are the
Areas where environment issues can better be takesocial . Moveover the offer is
More and more for understanding our environment.
. CONFUCIANISM- THE RELIGIONS OF RATIONALISD SOCIAL ORDER
Confucianism, beisids being known as the religion of confucious, and the a
Religion of li or ritual. Ritual and music occur again and again in the confucions
Texts and seem to embody the entire confucion system of outward social order
The conception of true manhood seems to embody the essence of confucions
Of teachings ragarding pessonal conduct. The importance of the exact meaning
Of the phrase ‘ritual’ and music can be made amply clear in the three Confucions
Discoveries. Confucius’s own definiations of the government and of ‘li’ exactly coincide.
Government is defined as putting as things or people in order, but ‘li’ is
Also defind as the order of things . The Chinese word li cannot be rendered into
An Englisg word .On one extreme ‘li’ means ‘ritual’ , propriety, in a generalised
Sence, it simply means an ‘good manner’ in its higher philosophic sence, it means
An ideal social order with everything in its place and particularly a rationalized
Feudal order, which was breaking down in the days when Confucius lined.
To adhere to the philososphic meaning, Confucius wa trying to restore
A social order based on love-love for one’s kind and respect for authority, of which the social rites of public worship and festivities in the ritual and music should
Be the outward symbols. Of course, the rituals of worship lead straight back to
Primitive religious rites and ceremonies and it is clear that this so called ‘religion
Of li’ was truly semi-religions to God at one end one end in the sacrifice to the
Heaven by the Empreor and related to comman people at the other end the a
Teaching of the affection and discipline and respect for authority in home life.
There have exited different sacrifies to Heaven or God to the ancestors of
The rulers, to the spirites of earth and the mountains and rivers. Confucius, as
Reported in the Analects and the Liki, said that he did not know the meaning
Of these particular sacrifices to god or the Imperial ancestors known as chiao
And t’ I, and that if he did, it would be so easy to rule the world as to turn over one’s hand. The ‘li’ Confucius covered both religious laws and laws of civil life
Like the laws of Manu smriti in Hinduism or the laws of Moses in Christianity.
Confucious loved the ritual of worship, not merely as ceremonial acts without
Meaning, but with his clear knowledge of human psychology. He saw that the
Proper rituals brought about in the worshipper a respectful and God-fearing bent
Of mind. Moreover he was a conservative who believed in authority and in the
Continuity with the past. Personally, his artistic sence was too keen for him to
Moved by the appeal of ceremonies and music, of which there is so much evidence.
And as the worship of God and the ancestors of the rulers was to bring
Out a state of true piety, to the ceremonies of drinking festivals and archery
Contests in the villages, accompanied with song and dance and kowtowing,
Teaching, the villagers to observe form, and order in their festivities , were
Also to bring a sense of general order and countries among the masses. Thus
Confucius gave a sort of philosophic and even poetic meaning to ritual and
Music dance. This was not surprising considering the fact that Confucius was
Himself a great lover of music, and played on musical instruments of his time.
Confucius had an ethical approach to the problem of polities. He was
Believed that a nation of good sons and good brothers could not help making
An orderly, peaceful nation. Confucius traced back the ordering of a national
Life to the regulation of the family life and the regulation of the family life
To the cultivation of the personal life. The logical connections between a
World order as the final aim and the cultivation of the personal life by in the
individual as a necessary start are made perfectly plain in his writhing,
The theory of imitation, or the power of example, results in the doctrine
Of the nation’s intellectual upper class and of ‘government by example’ .
The intellectual upper class is at the same time moral upper class, or it fails
In its qualifications to be considered the upper class at all. This is well-known
Conception of the Confucius ‘gentleman’ or ‘superior man’ or ‘princely man’
Such a princely man is not a superman of the Nietzschean type, but is merly a
Kind and gentle man of moral principles, at the same time a man who loves
Learning, who is calm himself, and perfectly at ease and and constantly the
Careful of his own conduct, believing that by example he has a great influence
Over society in general. Confucius was perfectly at ease in his own station of life
And had contempt for the luxuries which separated the poor from the rich.
There was a lot of fun in Confucius. He led a full joyous life, the full human
Life of feelings and artistic taste. He was a man of deep emotionality and great
Sensitive nature. At the death of his favourite disciple, Confucius wept bitterly.
When he was asked why he wept he so bitterly and shaken, he replied, If I don’t
Weep bitterly at the death of such a person, for whom else shall I weep. His a
Curious sensitiveness and capacity for shadding tears was shown in an instance when he passed by a casual funeral of one of his acquaintances. He went in, and
Moved by the weeping of other, he also wept.
Religious Principles of Confucius; Human nature is the best gift of God
To man. The cultivation of the moral laws is what we call culture. The life of moral man is an exemplification of the universal moral order. The life of the
Vulgar person, on the other hand is a contradiction of the universal moral
Order. Truth does not depart from human nature. If it does so, it cannot be
Called a truth. ‘When a man carries out the principles of his conscientiousness
And reciprocity, he is not far from the moral law.